RESEARCH

About U.S. Population & Households:

  • 2017 population-325,719,178 click to read
  • 2017 US households- 126,022,000 click to read
  • In 2016, Gallup Reported  that 1 in 8 U.S. adults, over 40 MILLION, say they smoke marijuana” = 15,440,000 – the estimated number of households represented
  • 2016 the CDC reported that 37.8 MILLION U.S. adults were current cigarette smokers” =  14,590,800- the estimated number of households represented.

Healthy Homes Initiative:

  • Although the health risks associated with homes are many and varied, the household hazards which can contribute to them tend to be interrelated. Excess moisture, poor indoor air quality, and high levels of contaminated dust are common root causes for residential health hazards.  read HUD article
  •  In keeping with the first three recommended objectives, the Healthy Homes Technical Studies (HHTS) grant program emphasizes research activities to develop or improve methods for the identification and control of housing-related health hazards. The panel’s focus areas, including moisture reduction, dust control, and improvements in indoor air quality. Indoor air quality can be improved by removing environmental tobacco smoke from the home. The Surgeon General has concluded that eliminating smoking in indoor spaces is the only way to fully protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoke exposure.

The five objectives of the Healthy Homes Initiative were the:

  1. Identification of homes where interventions would be appropriate;
  2. Development of appropriately scaled and efficient intervention strategies;
  3. Selection of efficient strategies for evaluating intervention effectiveness;
  4. Development of local capacity to operate sustainable programs to prevent and control toxic mold hazards in residences of low and very low-income families; and
  5. Determination of biomarkers to address health threshold levels for exposure to mold.

Alginate From Seaweed:

Marijuana Usage:

Indoor Air Quality & Indoor Air Pollution:

Third-Hand Smoke & The Effects:

  • Thirdhand smoke consists of the tobacco residue from cigarettes, cigars, and other tobacco products that is left behind after smoking and builds up on surfaces and furnishings. Tobacco smoke is composed of numerous types of gasses and particulate matter, including carcinogens and heavy metals, like arsenic, lead, and cyanide. Sticky, highly toxic particulates, like nicotine, can cling to walls and ceilings. Gases can be absorbed into carpets, draperies, and other upholsteries.
  • The National Institute of Health found that these toxic brews can then reemit back into the air and recombine to form harmful compounds that remain at high levels long after smoking has stopped occurring. Thirdhand smoke consists of residual tobacco smoke pollutants that 1) remain on surfaces and in dust after tobacco has been smoked, 2) are re-emitted back into the gas phase, or 3) react with oxidants and other compounds in the environment to yield secondary pollutants.
  • Study reveals dangers of nicotine in Thirdhand smoke click to read
    “We know that these residual levels of nicotine may build up over time after several smoking cycles, and we know that through the process of aging, third-hand smoke can become more toxic over time,” says Destaillats. “Our work highlights the importance of third-hand smoke reactions at indoor interfaces, particularly the production of nitrosamines with potential health impacts.”
  • A study published in February 2010 found that Thirdhand smoke causes the formation of carcinogens. The nicotine in tobacco smoke reacts with nitrous acid – a common component of indoor air – to form the hazardous carcinogens. Nicotine remains on surfaces for days and weeks, so the carcinogens continue to be created over time, which are then inhaled, absorbed or ingested. click to read  Children of smokers are especially at risk of Thirdhand smoke exposure and contamination because tobacco residue is noticeably present in dust throughout places where smoking has occurred. The homes, hair, clothes, and cars of smokers can have significant levels of Thirdhand smoke contamination. Young children are particularly vulnerable, because they can ingest tobacco residue by putting their hands in their mouths after touching contaminated surfaces. 
  • Researchers at San Diego State University’s Department of Psychology have found that homes of former smokers remained polluted with Thirdhand smoke for up to 6 months after the residents quit smoking. The Thirdhand smoke settled in house dust and on surfaces and then continually exposed residents to nicotine and NNK (a tobacco-specific carcinogen) even after they had quit smoking. Parents, landlords, business owners and others need to be aware of the health risks of exposure to Thirdhand smoke and recognize that eliminating smoking is the only way to protect against tobacco’s smoke contamination. click to read
  • Does the Smoke Ever Really Clear? Thirdhand Smoke Exposure Raises New Concerns click to read
  • What is Thirdhand smoke, and why is it a concern? click to read
  • Formation of carcinogens indoors by surface-mediated reactions of nicotine with nitrous acid, leading to potential Thirdhand smoke hazards click to read
  • Major ‘third-hand smoke’ compound causes DNA damage — and potentially cancer click to read
  • Thirdhand Smoke May Damage Your DNA  click to read
  • A 2010 study showed THS also remains after smokers move out of their homes, even after being vacant for two months and being prepared for new residents, sometimes with new carpeting and paint. Meanwhile, other lines of research have confirmed some smoke compounds adsorb onto surfaces and then desorb back into the air over time, providing a source of tobacco toxicants that lingers long after people finish smoking.  click to read
  • Thirdhand smoke uptake to aerosol particles in the indoor environment click to read
  • Thirdhand smoke (THS) is the persistent residue generated from aged secondhand smoke (SHS) that adheres to indoor dust and surfaces and reemits into the air, which is of concern as a public health hazard. Click to read.

Cigarette Smoke & The Effects:

Fire & Smoke Damage:

Titanium Dioxide (TiO2)

TiO2 is a naturally occurring material used in a wide range of applications from paint to sunscreen, medicines, toothpaste and food coloring. In paint, it is used in two-thirds of all pigments world-wide because of its whiteness and opacity. While typically considered safe for consumer use in food products, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified TiO2 as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Classification 2B). Their summary concludes: “No significant exposure to titanium dioxide is thought to occur during the use of products in which titanium dioxide is bound to other materials, such as paint.” This classification is primarily relevant when exposed to TiO2 in fine dust or powder form only.

TiO2 is approved by the FDA for use in cosmetics, drugs, medical devices, and indirect food additives, such as tooth paste.

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